Criticizing Capitalism in “The Rocking-Horse Winner”

D.H. Lawrence in the short story “The Rocking-Horse Winner” criticizes Capitalism that creates obsession with money and social alienation. The story presents the reality of ‘modern society’ based on the capitalist economic system where peoples are corrupted by materialism and hunger for money. The story begins like a fairy tale “There was a women who was beautiful, who started with all the advantages, yet she had no luck.” Now, the whole story revolves around this “luck” which denotes ‘material possessions’ and ‘physical comfort’, particularly ‘money’. The relationship between characters, especially Paul and his mother is greatly influenced by money. As a result, Paul, a young boy, becomes the victim of… Read More

Continue Reading

Joyce’s “A Painful Case”: quest and rejection for Love

James Joyce’s story “A Painful Case” depicts two painful cases: a man’s rejection of love and a woman’s futile quest for it. The obvious question after reading the story is that what’s the factor that attract Mr. Duffy with his first real friend and then made him back out unexpectedly? It is the desire of sex that attracted and distracted Mr. Duffy and Mrs. Sinico. Though Mr. Duffy rejects Mrs. Sinico’s invitation, author’s descriptions of his inner feelings and intimacy with her shows his physical attraction. “One night during which she had shown every sign of unusual excitement, Mrs. Sinicocaught up his hand passionately and pressed it to her cheek”… Read More

Continue Reading

Early Church Fathers, Paganism and Christianity

The Church Fathers were the writers of the time who combined philosophy and theology to produce a more sophisticated Christianity (Watson, 245). Particularly they were of the first five centuries of Christian history. At that time, the theological discussions was not limited to Rome. Outside Rome, Alexandria and Antioch became the intellectual capital of the then Christian world. The best known of the Alexandrians was Clement (c. 150-216). His aim was to “reconcile pagan scholarship- especially Greek ideas– with Christianity (Watson, 245)”. He disagrees with pagan intellectual and argued that “the world was not mythological phenomenon full of gods and daemons rather it was a natural governed by supreme self-subsistent… Read More

Continue Reading

Relationship in Kincaid’s “Girl”

Jamaica Kincaid’s “Girl” is the story of conflicting and complicated relationship between a mother, a dominant narrator, and her daughter, a hidden protagonist. The mother’s life seems completely focused on domestic work and teaching her daughter to do the same. One can understand her psychology as the product of patriarchal oppression. She has many cruel ideas about what a woman is supposed to do in her life in order to be accepted in the society. It seems she wants to rule her daughter’s life. For this reason, the mother keeps on ordering her daughter to follow certain rules to be respected by people. The mother orders countless rules on how… Read More

Continue Reading

Bartleby’s Refusal against Capitalism

Bartleby in Herman Melville’s short story “Bartleby, the Scrivener” is a revolutionary worker who refused to be a commodity in capitalist society. His passive resistance is an allegorical representation of war against commodification of human being. In this sense, he is a challenge for capitalism. In reality, Bartleby is a victim of a capitalist society which always seek for constant production and profit. Scriveners like Bartleby are engaged in boring jobs of copying and proofreading texts. Moreover, they are the part of machinery of capitalistic economy. As a result of endless non-creative work, depression and frustration grows in society.Bartleby’s basic task was to copy legal documents. “It is an indispensable… Read More

Continue Reading

The Parallel Lines

My mind is imbalanced like a floating leaf on the sea. I am trying to convince myself; however, the attempts are becoming more meaningless. There are two lines in my memory. There is no certainty where these two lines begin and end. My journey does not have definite trail and decided destination. What is the meaning of my existence? Does a leaf floating on the water have destination? Does it have any meaning for existence? Alas! I realized how much my values have been declined. Valueless indeed. It has become ragged like a damaged thing inside the showcase; like a design already outdated without taking real shape. What a maniacal… Read More

Continue Reading

Human Relation and Morality in Camus’s “The Guest”

Albert Camus “The Guest” (1957) portrays the act of making moral decisions, choice and accountability. The story basically deals about a school master named Daru who has the problem of making a moral decision regarding what to do with the Arab prisoner, left under his supervision by the gendarme Balducci. Balducci, a military police officer, is the first to talk about a revolt, and speaks about the obligations that men face during war. After Balducci leaves, Daru forms a genuine human relationship with the Arab.  He gives him hospitality and they form a relationship. This adds a new dimension to the moral choice—now he has formed a human connection with… Read More

Continue Reading